Arriving at a conclusion without an established or spoken premise.

Affirming a Disjunct

When considering two alternative outcomes, do not assume that if one occurs, the other is certain.

Appeal to Tradition

Assuming that a method or idea is superior because it remained popular or successful over time.

Denying the Antecedent

If a premise implies a result but the premise does not happen, do not assume the result cannot still happen.

Post hoc, ergo propter hoc

Assuming that because something happened first, it caused whatever happened next.

Relative Privation

Justifying something bad because worse things exist by comparison.

Distinction Without a Difference

Focusing on the use of one term over another when they both define the same concept.

Loaded Language

Using language where an assumption is built-in to guide a desired answer.

Syntactic Ambiguity

When a sentence has multiple interpretations.

Circular Reasoning

Creating an explanation that only supports a claim because it supports the claim.