‘Brushing off’ contradictory evidence as if it is irrelevant.

Moving the Goalposts

Changing criteria or definitions to create an unfair advantage or disadvantage.

Argument ad Baculum

Threatening, coercing, or bribing to win an argument.

Slothful Induction

Refusing to accept or believe a likely conclusion despite strong supporting evidence.

Special Pleading

To plea for an exception to a general rule.

False Dilemma

When options are oversimplified or presented as the only ones available.

Argument from Ignorance

Assuming something is true because it’s not proven false.

Balance Fallacy

Making two concepts equal because they appear to be similar.

Ad Hoc

Providing an unprovable argument to support an initially disputed claim.

Appeal to Novelty

Claiming something to be better because it is newer or different.