Illusion of Control

The tendency for people to assume they can affect outcomes that are actually beyond their control.

Illusory Correlation

Creating a relationship between two concepts when no such relationship actually exists.

Information Bias

The tendency to seek more information even after there is no more useful impact on the decision.

In-Group Bias

The tendency to treat member of one’s own group more favorably.

Illusion of Truth

People are more likely to believe a statement they have heard previously just because it’s familiar to them.


Leveling is the tendency to keep out or tone down parts of a memory to keep the recollection smooth.

Mere Exposure Effect

The tendency to hold a stronger preference for the familiar.

Modality Effect

The end of a presentation is easiest to recall, followed by the items at the beginning.

Neglect of Probability

The tendency to make a decision without regard for probability.

Picture Superiority Effect

Viewing pictures facilitate memory recall better than written word.